Dry soil conditions such as in 2012 often slow the rate of herbicide degradation and increase the potential for damage to rotational crops from herbicide carryover, according to a University of Illinois weed science expert.
"Many factors interact to determine how long a herbicide remains active in the soil environment, including factors related to the herbicide, the soil, and climactic conditions," said associate professor of weed science Aaron Hager.
Herbicides vary in their persistence in the soil.
Some herbicides, such as thifensulfuron, have very little soil activity, whereas others, such as picloram, can persist for several months. Chemical characteristics inherent to the herbicide molecule affect persistence, so there is little that can be done to shorten persistence time once it has been applied.
The crop rotation interval specified on the herbicide label is one indication of its persistence. Intervals are longer for herbicides that tend to persist longer and for crops that are more sensitive to residues.
Soil properties also influence persistence. Soil pH can impact how quickly herbicides are degraded by hydrolysis, the process by which the herbicide molecule reacts with water to cleave certain chemical bonds, inactivating it or rendering it less active. Hydrolysis is more rapid in acidic soil. Soil moisture and temperature influence hydrolysis rates, with hydrolysis slowing in dry and cold soil.
Physical properties of the soil are also important. Soils with higher amounts of clay and organic matter have a greater potential for carryover than coarse-textured soils or those with less organic matter. Higher amounts of soil organic matter and certain types of clay particles adsorb more herbicide onto soil colloids, increasing the potential for carryover.
Usually these attractions are weak, and herbicide molecules move from the colloids into the soil solution in a reversible manner. However, lack of soil moisture can cause adsorption forces to become stronger. Herbicides bound to soil colloids cannot be taken up by plants, move downward through the soil profile, or be degraded by microbes. Injury to rotational crops is possible if these bound residues are displaced by water molecules either late in the growing season or the following spring.
Many herbicides are degraded by soil microorganisms, such as fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, and algae. Soil type, pH, organic matter content, and moisture influence soil microorganism composition. The rate at which soil microorganisms degrade herbicides depends on environmental and soil conditions affecting the microbial species composition and population, such as temperature and moisture. The activity level of most soil microorganisms increases with soil temperature. Minimal degradation occurs when soil temperatures approach 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Soil microorganisms need moisture to degrade herbicides rapidly. Under extremely dry conditions, the degradation rate can slow enough to allow the herbicide to persist into the next growing season.
What can be done to minimize the risk of injury to rotational crops from residues applied during the previous growing season?
"Herbicide degradation simply takes time and moisture," Hager said. "Soil moisture across much of Illinois is more abundant than at this time last year, but the activity of the soil microbial populations remains limited under the current soil temperatures."
He added that shallow tillage can help distribute herbicides more evenly across a field and can help enhance degradation, especially when soil temperatures are warm and soil moisture is adequate. Early planting or planting a rotational crop that is very sensitive to the herbicide applied last season increases the likelihood of crop injury from herbicide carryover.
Ultimately, crop susceptibility determines whether persisting residues will cause problems. "Planting the same crop next season as was planted in 2012 would effectively eliminate the potential for crop injury from herbicide residues," Hager said. "This solution may not be feasible for every situation where herbicide carryover is possible, but it is an option that warrants consideration."
Hager suggested delaying planting as long as possible if crop rotation must occur where there is concern about carryover.
Source: University of Illinois